Resources and Tools Related to Evaluation

"This section was created with the support of Tammy Horne, WellQuest"

Needs Assessment
Abby-Livingston, Diane and Abbey, David S. (1982). Enjoying research? A how-to manual on needs assessment. Produced for: the Recreation branch of the Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Recreation. Available at:  

Alberta Health (1995). Assessing community health needs: A guide for regional health authorities. Edmonton, AB: Author.

Barnsley, J., & Ellis, D. (1992). Research for social change: Participatory action research for community groups. Vancouver, BC: Women’s Research Centre.

Catalano, R.F., Berglund, M.L., Ryan, J.A.M., Lonczak, H.C., & Hawkins, J.D. (1998). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. A report to United States Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation and National Institute for Child Health and Human Development by Social Development Research Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.

Chenoweth, David . (2001) . Decision points around evaluation. AWHP's Worksite Health Journal, summer, 8-14.

Dahlberg, L.L., Toal, S.B. & Behrons, C.B. (1998). Measuring violence-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among youth: A compendium of assessment tools. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.

Edmonton Social Planning Council (1993). Doing it right: A needs assessment workbook. Edmonton, AB: Author.

Ellis, D., Reid, G., & Barnsley, J. (1990). Keeping on track: An evaluation guide for community groups. Vancouver, BC: Women’s Research Centre.

Farell, Kratzmann, McWilliam, Robinson, Saunders, Ticknor & White (2002). Evaluation made Very easy, Accessible and Logical (EVAL). Dalhousie University

Feather, J., McGowan, V., & Moore, M. (1994). Planning health needs assessment: The basic choices. Saskatoon, SK: Prairie Region Health Promotion Research Centre (University of Saskatchewan).

Fetterman, D.M., Kaftarian, S.J. & Wandersman, A. (Eds). (1996). Empowerment Evaluation: Knowledge and tools for self-assessment and accountability. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks.

Jackson S, Edward R, Kahan B, Goodstat M. (2001). An Assessment of the Methods and Concepts Used to Synthesize the Evidence of Effectiveness in Health Promotion: A Review of 17 Initiatives. Toronto: Canadian Consortium of Health Promotion Research

Keck, J., Dauphinais, H., & Lewko, J. (1988). Critical paths: Organizing on health issues in the community. Toronto, ON: Between the Lines.

Soriano, F.I. (1995). Conducting needs assessments: A multidisciplinary approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Witkin, B.R., & Altschuld, J.W. (1995). Planning and conducting needs assessments: A practical guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Evidence-based Decision Making and Indicators
Alberta Health (1995). Evidence-based decision making: A guide to using indicators in health planning. Edmonton, AB: Author.

Debruin, A., Picavet, H.S.J., Nossikov, A. (1996). Health interview surveys: Towards International harmonization of methods and instruments. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organizations.

Dwyer, J.J.M., & Makin, S. (1997). In Canadian Journal of Public Health, November-December 1997.
Using a program logic model that focuses on performance measurement to develop a program.
Describes the uses of logic models, how to create and use logic models, definitions of elements of the model such as objectives and indicators, and includes a model based on a hypothetical prenatal education program.

McDowell, I., & Newell, C. (1996). Measuring health: A guide to rating scales and questionnaires. New York: Oxford.

National Forum on Health (1997). Canada health action: Building on the legacy. Ottawa, ON: Author. (Includes a section on evidence-based decision making)

Institute of Medicine (1997). Improving health in the community: A role for performance monitoring. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Perkins, Elizabeth R, Simnett, Ina (Ed), Wright Linda (Ed). February 1999. Evidence-based Health Promotion book.
Borus, M., Buntz, C., and Tash, W. Evaluating the Impact of Health Programs: A Primer. Cambridge: MIT Press. 1982.

Brinkerhoff, R., Brethower, D., Hluchyj, T. and Nowakowski, J. Program Evaluation. A Practitioners Guide for Trainers and Educators. Sourcebook and Design Manual Boston:Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing. 1983.

Cheadle, A., et. al. "Environmental Indicators: a Tool for Evaluating Community-based Health-promotion Programs." In American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 8(6):345-50. 1992

Chollat-Traquet, C. (1996). Evaluating tobacco control activities: Experiences and guiding principles. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Dignan, M.B., & Carr, P.A. (1992). Program planning for health education and promotion. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febinger.

Dwyer, J.J.M. (1996). In Public Health & Epidemiology Report Ontario, 7(2):38-46.
Applying program logic model in program planning and evaluation
Provides an overview of the logic model, including a case study of a bicycle safety program, with attention to the plausibility of the model.

Fitz-Gibbon, c. and Morris, L. How to Design a Program Evaluation. Newbury Park, California, Sage Publications. 1987.

Flay, B. and Best, A. "Overcoming Design Problems in Evaluation of Health Behaviors Programmes" in Evaluation and the Health Professions 5(1). 1982.

Friedman M. A Guide to Developing and Using Performance Measures in Results-based Budgeting, May 1997

A Guide for Evaluating Prevention Effectiveness. (1998) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Distributor: National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information. Email: (Free)

Guba, E.G., & Lincoln, Y.S. (1989). Fourth generation evaluation. Newbury Park, NJ: Sage.

Hatry, H., van Houten, T., Plantz, M., & Greenway, M.T. (1996). Measuring program outcomes: A practical approach. Washington, D.C.: United Way of America. -

Health Canada (1996). Guide to project evaluation: A participatory approach. Ottawa, ON: Author.

Health Communication Unit (1997). Evaluating health promotion programs. Toronto, ON: Centre for Health Promotion (University of Toronto). Can download as PDF file from

Health Communication Unit (1999)Introduction to Evaluation
9-step approach to evaluating health promotion programs.

Henerson, M., Morris, L. and Fitz-Gibbon, C., How to Measure Attitudes Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications. 1987.

Horne, T. (1995). Making a difference: Program evaluation for health promotion. Edmonton, AB: WellQuest Consulting Ltd. -

HOSPICAL: A Tool for Allocating Hospital Costs
Management Sciences for Health

Labonte, R., & Feather, J. (1996). Handbook on using stories in health promotion practice. Ottawa, ON: Health Canada.

Love, A.J. (1991). Evaluation methods sourcebook. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Evaluation Society.

Love, A.J. (1995). Evaluation methods sourcebook II. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Evaluation Society.

McLaughlin, J.A., & Jordan, G.B. (1999). In Evaluation and Program Planning, 22:65-72.
Logic models: A tool for telling your program's performance story
Discusses how the logic model can help managers answer the question of whether programs address problems appropriate for the program and organization, with examples and attention to contextual factors that affect programs.

McNamara, Carter PhD (last revised: February 16, 1998). Basic Guide to Program Evaluation - St. Paul, MN

Measuring and Improving Costs, Cost-Effectiveness, and Cost-Benefit for Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: A Manual
National Institutes of Health (NIH) - U.S.

Morris, L., Fitz-Gibbon, C. and Freeman, M. How to Communicate Evaluation Findings. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications. 1987.

Nutbeam, D., et. al. "Maintaining Evaluation Designs in Long Term Community based Health Promotion Programmes:Heartbeat Wales Case Study." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 47(2):127-33. 1993.

Parrott, L. and Condit, C. Evaluating Women's Health Messages: A Resource Book. California:Sage Publications. 1996.

Patton, M.Q. (1987). Using qualitative methods in evaluation. Newbury Park, NJ: Sage.

Patton, M.Q. (1997). Utilization-focused evaluation: The new century text. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Posavac, E.J., & Carey, R.G. (1989). Program evaluation: Methods and case studies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Rossi, P.H., & Freeman, H.E. (1983). Evaluation: A systematic approach. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Edited by Irving Rootman, Michael Goodstadt, Brian Hyndman, David V. McQueen, Louise Potvin, Jane Springett and Erio Ziglio.(2001). Evaluation in health promotion. Principles and perspectives.  WHO Regional Publications: European Series, No. 92

Rush, B., and Ogborne, A. (1991). In The Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation. 6 (1), 95-106.
Program logic models: expanding their role and structure for program planning and evaluation

Abstract: Schematic representations of a program sometimes referred to as program logic models, have been used for a number of years as a means of clarifying the purposes of a program and the causal assumptions on which it is based. This paper discusses some of the benefits of expanding the structure of these logic models by clearly separating implementation and outcome objectives within the objectives hierarchy of the program. Benefits of constructing these logic models for program planning and other purposes are also discussed.

Russell, L. B., Is Prevention Better than Cure (chapter 5), Studies in Social Economics, The Brookings Institute, Washington D.C. 1986

University of Ottawa Community Health Research Unit. A Program Evaluation Toolkit.
Available at
Describes what a logic model is, why a logic model is useful, elements of a logic model, how to create a logic model, and provides an example.

Woodward, C., and Chambers, L. Guide to Questionnaire Construction and Question Writing. Ottawa:Canadian Public Health Association. 1980.

Woodward, C., Chambers, L. and Smith, K. Guide to Improved Data Collection in Health and Health Care Surveys. Ottawa: Canadian Public Health Association. 1982.

W.K. Kellogg Foundation (1998). Evaluation handbook. Battle Creek, MI: Author. –
A discussion of the use of program logic models to measure program impacts, with attention to types of logic models (focused on activities, outcomes or theory).

Wong-Reiger, D., & David, L. (1994). A hands-on guide to planning and evaluation: How to plan and evaluate programs in community-based organizations. Ottawa: Canadian Hemophilia Society (Note: copies of this document are available from the National AIDS Clearinghouse in Ottawa; telephone 613-725-3769).

Research Methods
A Good Overview

Mertens, D.M. (1998).
Research methods in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mostly Quantitative
Fowler, F.J. (1993). Survey research methods. Newbury Park, NJ: Sage.

Fowler, F.J. (1995). Improving survey questions: Design and evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Sallant, P.S., & Dillman, D.A. (1994). How to conduct your own survey. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Mostly Qualitative
Bogdan, R.C., & Biklen, S.K. (1992). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Henderson, K.A. (1991). Dimensions of choice: A qualitative approach to recreation, parks and leisure research. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc.

Kirby, S.L., & McKenna, K. (1989). Research, experience, social change: Methods from the margins. Toronto, ON: Garamond.

Krueger, R.A. (1994). Focus groups. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Kvale, S. (1996). InterViews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Morse, J.M., & Field, P.A. (1995). Qualitative research methods for health professionals. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Qualitative and Quantitative Data for Health Education Program Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation: a Spiral Approach." In Health Education Quarterly. 19(1):101-15. 1992.

Gordis, L. (1996). Epidemiology. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.

Norman, G.R., & Streiner, D.L. (1986). PDQ statistics. Toronto, ON: B.C. Decker, Inc.

Streiner, D.L., Norman, G.R., Monroe Blum, H. (1989). PDQ epidemiology. Toronto, ON: B.C. Decker, Inc.

HIA Sources

The American Evaluation Association -
Chelimsky, E. & Shadish, W.R. (xxx) Evaluation for the 21st Century
The Prevention Dividend Project -

Updated June 17, 2004
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